A replicable, systemic and integrated strategy to adapt European cities and urban ecosystems into the smart city of the future.
The CITyFiED project aims to develop a replicable, systemic and integrated strategy to adapt European cities and urban ecosystems into the smart city of the future, focusing on reducing the energy demand and GHG emissions and increasing the use of renewable energy sources by developing and implementing innovative technologies and methodologies for building renovation, smart grid and district heating networks and their interfaces with ICTs and Mobility.
The project’s strategy five pillars:
- Large scale demonstrations, including three holistic district renovations at Laguna de Duero-Valladolid (Spain), Soma (Turkey) and Lund (Sweden);
- Maximization of the replication potential through the organization of a cluster of cities and building a community of interest among cities;
- Development of innovative and cost effective methodologies and procedures for planning, deploying and replicating energy efficient district retrofitting actions;
- Development of better business models to support the strategy for transforming urban areas into Nearly Zero-Energy Districts (NZED);
Energetic study and methodological development of processes of characterization, diagnosis and intervention at an urban scale on ventilation processes, enclosure solutions and urban parameters with an experimental basis in buildings and the urban environment of Torrelago in Laguna de Duero (Valladolid)
- Analysis of the possibilities of natural ventilation processes in residential buildings rehabilitation of the second half of the 20th century and the development of a methodology that allows establishing ventilation systems design strategies in this type of buildings. Both the analysis and the methodology will have to be based in the use of energetic simulation tools and tests that will be considered. This methodology development will be supported by its implementation in the housing buildings in Torrelago. Besides, the implementation of other study cases in Europe will have to be guided.
- Analysis and development of a methodology for characterization, diagnosis and optimization of enclosure solutions when rehabilitation of existing residential buildings of the second half of the 20th century. An analysis and establishment of a diagnosis and characterization of the enclosure in terms of energetic behaviour, thermal bridge and other problems derived from permeability levels method will have to be accomplished. Moreover, the energetic impact that each one of these parameters has on the building global behaviour will have to be analysed. This study will be based on the application of standardised methods of multi-pressurization, thermoflowmetry, infrared thermography, etc. The basis for this task development will be this methodology evaluation and the characterization of the housing buildings in Torrelago, as well as the establishment of the needed guides for its development in two other study cases in Europe.
- Elaboration of an interventions matrix for the energetic improvement of the neighbourhood inside a global energetic rehabilitation methodology at an urban scale. Fields of intervention: Transport and accessibility; water cycle; consumption and energetic production in the urban space; unoccupied spaces treatment; management of urban solid waste (MSW).
The air quality on inside living spaces interferes in great extent on the quality of life of the occupants. The air quality on the inside of the housing spaces is the result of the confluence of several conditions that alter the composition of air particles. The simultaneous study of the procedure of urban ventilation and the existing internal ventilation cycle will allow to design the guidelines of intervention which enhance the ventilation efficiency in the inside of the housing spaces in Torrelago.
The air outside the buildings moves freely due to the effect of wind dynamic forces and other forces and stresses that alter the path followed by the air from suburban areas (cleaner air) to the point of consumption in housing. Air quality on the exterior depends on several surrounding variables which are difficult to handle. Its quality is greatly influenced by the amount of atmospheric pollution on the surroundings, either by the presence of industries, pollutant emissions from combustion gases or by the existence of traffic. However, the assessment of the air quality reaching the occupants of the buildings will depend on the pattern followed from its admission.
The pattern of behaviour of air in outdoor spaces is conditioned by the closer urban fabric and the roughness of the environment, among others. Its analysis will focus on the obtaining of the environmental parameters on the outside such as temperature, humidity and wind speed and those physical conditions of the environment, to proceed to its computerized simulation.
Analysis and study of the current legislation application, on the field of health standards and user comfort in buildings encompassed by the project, dealing with air renewal processes in the buildings’ outdoors. It’s expected to study parameters and constructive elements intervening in air quality inside habitable spaces and the applicable solutions for its enhancement.
The existing constructive conditions for the ventilation of habitable climatized spaces require being analyzed to develop an indoors ventilation efficiency enhancement program. The improvement of ventilation efficiency entails reducing the energetic impact on the overall building calculation, preserving the minimal prescriptions referred by the current applicable regulations (CTE DB-HS3).
This analysis is focused in the taking of measurements inside some selected homes following orientation and various different structural and architectonical typologies, identified so as to verify the compliance of the users’ healthiness and hygiene requirements. The temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, inlet and outlet air flow measurements, along with environment conditions intervening in the air renewal cycle will be able to depict air behavior on the existing natural ventilation process. This portrayal will be used for the design of an indoor air renewal process incorporating passive natural ventilation systems compatible with the solutions to be enacted by the study on the enclosure’s thermal resistance field.
The improvement of the air renewal process on indoor spaces using natural ventilation fulfills the users’ hygiene and healthiness demand and reduces the neighborhood’s energetic impact, reducing at the same time the economic constraints, making more efficient its expenses in fuel and thermal conditioning systems. The development of on site tests using the tracer gases concentration decay method (using Sulfur Hexaflouride as inert tracer gas) inside habitable spaces will enable to measure the influence of current ventilation. The portrayal of one of the homes will let the research team to proceed with its CFD software simulation.
Losses through the enclosure belong to two types. The first, pertains to transmission losses, determined by the structural design, thermal conductivity and the own enclosure’s building material thickness. The second type belongs to ventilation losses, including infiltrations, determined by permeability and hermeticism of the buildings enclosure. The thermoconstructive and permeable characteristics are attributes inherent to design and the building’s enclosure realization quality. Both types of losses must be considered if a reduction in energy consumption is desired.